Indian Capital Markets – Opportunities and Challenges

The Indian Economy is a developing mixed economy ranked as the third largest by purchasing power parity and sixth largest by nominal GDP. With an average growth of 6 to 7 % annually, the Indian Economy is one of the world’s fastest growing major economy. Due to young population, low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates and increasing integration with global economy, the long term growth prospects of the Indian economy are unquestionable. The sector that provides the major share of India’s GDP happens to be Services sector of which the financial services industry contributes around 37% of GDP.

For such a fast growing economy, capital formation is a pre requisite and in fact imperative. One factor that is then of great significance for Capital formation is a developed capital market. A robust capital market not only helps in mobilizing savings for accelerated capital formation through raising long term capital and promoting industrial growth but also provides a ready and liquid market for investors to be a part of the growth story of the nation.

In the present times, Indian Capital Markets are performing a plethora of functions. The financial intermediaries offer a range of technical and advisory services to entrepreneurs and act as a reliable guide regarding corporate performance as well. On the other hand, they also make generating foreign capital possible which in turn helps in bringing foreign technology that is important for economic development of the country.

The Indian Capital Market comprises of the following segments viz., Equity Markets, Debt Markets, Commodity Markets and Currency Markets. It is with respect to each of these components where the opportunities and challenges of Indian Capital markets lie.

The equity market has key constituents like retail investors, domestic institutional investors like mutual funds and insurance companies and foreign institutional investors. Increasing participation of retail investors is one of the daunting challenges of the Indian Capital Markets. Out of a population of 1 billion only 1% participate in equity segment and out of that, only a fraction are active. The need of the hour is greater depth and liquidity and lower transaction costs. While the Assets under Management of the mutual fund companies have traversed a growth path since the opening up of this sector to private players, there has been a slowdown due to the influence of the global economy. Ensuring investor protection and offering more diversified products for greater financial inclusion is the biggest challenge facing this segment. Foreign institutional investment has grown immensely too and they can now become qualified institutional buyers and invest even in debt markets including corporate debt, government securities and security receipts issued by Asset Reconstruction Companies. The key challenge again is the growth in this sector. There is a limitation to this growth due to taxation issues. These funds are being currently managed from tax efficient jurisdiction. A reform in this area is now imperative and urgent.

The next segment of capital market viz., Debt Market is still at a nascent stage. In well developed economies wherein bond markets are of a larger size than equity markets, the case is opposite in India. The debt segment and specifically the corporate bond market is a major area of opportunity. In order to harness this opportunity, generating domestic demand, improving market infrastructure and rationalising the tax regime are major areas of reform.

Another emerging asset class of which investors still remain wary of are commodity and currency markets. While commodity markets have been growing at a phenomenal pace, there are major limitations for various investment classes other that domestic institutional investors. Future holds promise as removal of these hurdles is work-in-progress. On the currency front, this segment has also witnessed consistent growth but a lot many opportunities still remain unexplored. Presence of a strong regulator will convert this challenge into an opportunity.

Understanding of all these aspects requires not only conceptual knowledge but also increasing the general level of awareness by keeping abreast with latest news and networking with industry experts. The Indian capital Markets are fertile ground for numerous opportunities in the future for practitioners, researchers, academicians and citizens of the country in general. Participate in the Indian Capital Markets and be a part of the nation’s growth story.

Dr. Meghna Dangi,
Program Coordinator, PGDFM,
AURO University.

Top Seven Artificial Intelligence Technologies That Will Subjugate In 2018-19

  1. 1Machine Learning Platforms (Environment)
    A platform for automating and accelerating the delivery lifecycle of predictive applications capable of processing big data using machine learning or related techniques.” Now a  days, computers can also easily understand, and they can be extraordinary intelligent!

Machine learning (ML)  is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to “learn” with data, without being explicitly programmed. By providing algos, application programming interfaces, evolution and education tools, big data, applications and other machines, They are currently mainly being used for prediction and classification. Adext is the  only Audience Management as a Service in the world that applies real AI and machine learning to digital advertising.
Compnaies which providing Machine Learning platforms include Google Inc., IBM Corp., Microsoft Corp., Amazon Web Services Inc., BigML Inc., FICO, Yottamine Analytics, Ersatz Labs Inc., Predictron Labs Ltd.

2.   Peer-to-Peer Networks

A peer-to-peer (P2P) network in which interconnected nodes (“peers”) share resources amongst each other without the use of a centralized administrative system. A network based on the client-server model, where individual clients request services and resources from centralized servers.

2Latest Example of  peer-to-peer networks is Bitcoin Network is a peer-to-peer payment network that operates on a cryptographic protocol and  have the ability to  solve some of the world’s most challenging or demanding problems, by collecting and analyzing large amounts of data, says Ben Hartman, CEO of Bet Capital LLC, to Entrepreneur.

Users send and receive bitcoins, the units of currency, by broadcasting digitally signed messages to the network using bitcoin cryptocurrency wallet software .

 3. Digital Twin/AI Modeling

Digital Twins is a approach based in IoT but require the knowledge  of machine learning and  AI. It’s a major enabler of event processing as opposed to traditional request processing. In many respects this is old wine in new bottles.  One of those exercises in renaming an existing practice to draw attention, much like separating out prescriptive analytics from predictive analytics a few years back. A digital twin is intended to be a digital replica of physical assets, processes, or systems, in other words, a model. It is most often referenced as an outcome of IoT (internet of things). Companies using digital twin and AI modeling technologies include VEERUM.

4 . Speech Recognition

Speech recognition is the inter-disciplinary sub-field of computational linguistics that  develops methodologies and technologies that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers. It is also known as automatic speech recognition (ASR), computer speech recognition or speech to text (STT). It incorporates knowledge and research in the linguistics, computer science, and electrical engineering fields. 3

Speech recognition applications include voice user interfaces such as voice dialing (e.g. “Call home”), call routing (e.g. “I would like to make a collect call”), domotic appliance control, search (e.g. find a podcast where particular words were spoken), simple data entry (e.g., entering a credit card number), preparation of structured documents (e.g. a radiology report), speech-to-text processing (e.g., word processors or emails), and aircraft (usually termed direct voice input).

Most recently, the field has benefited from advances in deep learning and big data, The worldwide industry adoption of a variety of deep learning methods in designing and deploying speech recognition systems.

These speech industry players include Google, Microsoft, IBM, Baidu, Apple, Amazon, Nuance,SoundHound, iFLYTEK many of which have publicized the core technology in their speech recognition systems as being based on deep learning. Siri is just one of the systems that can understand you.

 5. Virtual Agents

A virtual agent is a computer agent or program capable of interacting with humans. The example of Virtual agents is  chatbots. Virtual agents are using for customer service and support and as smart home managers. 5

Some of the companies that providing  virtual agents include Artificial Solutions, Microsoft , Assist , Google,Amazon, Satisfi,Apple,  AI, Creative Virtual, IBM and  IPsoft.



 6. Deep Learning

6Deep learning platforms use special category of  Machine Learning that include     artificial neural networks with various abstraction layers that can copy the human brain, processing data and creating patterns for decision making.

It is presently mainly being used to recall or recognize patterns and classify applications that are only compatible with large-amount of  data sets.

Top Deep Learning Companies are IBM, Google (Alphabet Inc), Facebook, Microsoft, Airbnb, Apple, Salesforce, Orbital Insight, Maana, Twitter, Pinterest, DigitalGenius (FinGenius), Cylance, DataRobot, NVIDIA Corporation and Many more.

7. Enterprise  Robotic Processes Automation

Robotic process automation is your “digital workforce,” made up of cognitive software robots that can automate any business process. Robotic processes automation uses scripts and methods that Xerox  and automate human tasks to support corporate processes. It is specifically beneficial for the situation when employ humans for a distinguish job or task is too Upscale or inefficient. Robotic Process Automation is well suited for processes that are clearly defined, repeatable and rules based. Based on these criteria, it can help organizations across numerous industries automate the completion of a wide variety of tasks, For instance is Adext a platform that automates digital advertising processes using Artificial Intelligence.

Big players of robotic processes automation are Automation Anywhere, Blue Prism,Daythree Business Services, IntelliCog Technologies, Kofax, Kryon Systems, Pegasystems, Qihan, Softomotive, UiPath.etc.

Mr. Akhilesh Latoria, 
Assistant Professor, 
School of IT, 
AURO University 

Role of Mentor in Holistic Development of Mentee


Effective mentoring relies on positive relationships that are developed in a professional manner. The mentor is, by the nature of their role, in a position of trust, authority and influence as friend, philosopher and guide. Mentoring is a long term commitment between mentor and mentee and ensures physical, mental, vital and spiritual development of both in a holistic manner. A mentor has a significant impact upon mentees’ educational progress, social and emotional wellbeing and positive behavioral transformation for living a spiritual life.There are disproportionate numbers of risk indicators for dropping out performance of youth when they enter a new system or culture where mentor plays a very important role.

Some of the commonly seen indicators disturbing the mental and psychological health of youth are as follows:

  • Substance abuse
  • Critical behaviors
  • Lack of self-esteem
  • Poor Academic performance/Grade retention
  • Absenteeism
  • Discipline problems at school or any other setup
  • Low educational expectations from self
  • Lack of plans / goals for education beyond high school
  • Lack of interaction with extracurricular activities
  • Peer pressure
  • Lack of skills for managing stress
  • Inferiority and superiority complex
  • Social isolation
  • Smoking & Drinking habits etc.

It is during this time they may permanently turn off from serious engagement in college and may turn to variety of critical and risky behaviors that can limit their chances of reaching productive adulthood with positive transformation and enrichment both personally and professionally leading to Holistic Development . Mentoring by caring faculty over a prolonged period of time will be effective in combating these risk factors.


Auro believes in quality mentoring relationship and positive outcomes in the areas of Mental, Physical, Vital and Spiritual growth of the students. Many of the questions and pre-conceived notions of the students of Auro will be responded and answered though this program. Auro University Mentorship Program CARE’s is being designed with an intention to guarantee every young student of Auro University that there is someone who cares about them. They are not alone in dealing with day-to-day challenges and issues. Through this program, Mentors will provide their mentees with an experienced friend, philosopher and guide who is there to help them in any number of situations with high sense of responsibility, commitment and dignity keeping view of all 12 core values of Auro University.

Objectives of Mentorship Program -CARE’s

  1. To Cultivate a conducive environment for innovative Integral and experiential learning
  2. To Allow and encourage independent thought for being self-sufficient lectures decision makers and problem solvers
  • To help them so that they learn to solve the most disturbing problems of youth i.e. academics, career, selection of spouse and of course life as a whole
  1. To promote open communication within the team for maintaining harmony and peace
  2. To foster a reciprocal foundation of trust and respect
  3. To Build stronger leadership and management skills among our students who will further contribute in nation building at all levels and professions
  • To Facilitate adoption of business best practices to accelerate business growth
  • To help acquire new business opportunities and market accesses with an ability to understand the needs of community as a whole


  1. We trust every student’s ability to grow and their desire to grow.
  2. You can only teach what you know but you can produce what you are.
  3. Unconditional acceptance of their being is the reason for my existence as a mentor. Accept them as they are.
  4. Accept that genius can flow from everyone.
  5. Best way to learn is to teach.
  6. Inner transformation cannot happen without in depth understanding and implementations.
  7. Truth is always multi-dimensional.
  8. If you are not convinced about the philosophy content you cannot deliver it.
  9. Road to mind is through heart. Touch the heart of students.
  10. The approach to mentoring shall vary with the personality and abilities of the mentee


  1 Absolute clarity about vision & mission of “CARES”

 2 Genuine respect for all :

All the mentees are potentially great and divine human beings. They are treated with utmost sincere respect.

3 More affirmation, negligible criticism :

Participants are affirmed for all their positive aspects to strengthen their core. Criticism and unsolicited advices are avoided.

4 Praise introspective statements :

Mentees are heartily praised and affirmed for their honest self-assessments, frank confessions, sharing of deep personal experiences etc. An environment is created to look respectably at such introspective participation as this is the main pillar of success for an individual.

5 Listen more to communicate well – Have Patience:

Mentors responsibility is to listen well, to encourage introspective participation, to affirm positively and judiciously share emphatically his / her insights after creating intense environment for learning.

6 Mentor is a model learner :

Mentor does not have to be playing the “superiority” role all the time ! Rather he / she comes across as a humble human being, willing to learn from anybody, everybody all the time. He / she does not pretend having solutions and expert comments about anything. He / she feels free to confess his / her ignorance or inability / inappropriateness to comment or judge something.

7 Truth is always multidimensional :

Mentor encourages an understanding that truth is always multidimensional. Truth is never black and white. He / she searches and acknowledges the element of truth in everything in a highly balanced manner and facilitates creation of understanding that is considerate of all such elements.

8 Firmness at times with softness :

There are moments when the mentor chooses to take a firm stand, but he / she does so as softly as he / she can. He / she may need to confront an individual when the very principles for which the mentorship stands for are at stake. He will take a stand eloquently, will stand alone if necessary.

9 Communication is important, not language/grammar :

The facilitator encourages participation and makes sure that the constraints of language or words does not hinder the communication process.

10 Smile all the times !  :

The mentor is intent and relaxed simultaneously. He / she takes and does everything with a smile -particularly criticism, questions, differences, disagreements and other seemingly unpleasant things.

Dr. Monika Suri ,
I/C Head , School of Business,
Chairperson, Mentorship Cell,
AURO University

Supporting Entrepreneurship In India

India for the first time moved into the top 100 in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business global rankings. The recent surge in entrepreneurship in India is a clinching proof of its huge enterprising potential. However, there is still a lot of untapped potential among people especially youth. If harnessed properly, this potential can result in the creation of a lot of new businesses, some of which can transform themselves into large and well-established organsiations. A huge chunk of growth in entrepreneurship is coming from five industries namely health care, education, retailing, financial services, market research, and logistics. In each of these industries, entrepreneurs are exploiting opportunities in both business to business and business to consumer segments. To be more specific, a lot of start-ups are emerging in health technology, financial technology, online retail, education technology and analytics. However, the pace of creation of start-ups is low based on global standards. Despite showing promise to accelerate the growth of start-ups, India is saddled with problems like regional and sect oral disparity, inadequate support systems and wrong perception about business. We have a situation where some states are developing rapidly in terms of creation of start-ups whereas some Cities are lagging behind in terms of creation of start-ups. A large percentage of start-ups have been created in Delhi, Hyderabad Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkota.

Based on a joint Study conducted by report by NASSCOM and Zinnov across various states in India, Bangalore, Delhi/NCR and Mumbai have been found to be the key start-up hubs. Simply put, India is facing problems that fall in four categories namely psychological, human resources, infrastructural and monetary. While the infrastructural and monetary problems in India are slowly reducing, the psychological problem and human resource problem still persist and are strong deterrents to entrepreneurship. The monetary problem has been reduced to some extent with the availability of two major funding options namely venture capital and angel investment. However, these two funding options have largely catered to a few industries like information technology, bio technology, e-commerce, health care and mobile & telecom. The infrastructure problem has been reduced to some extent with the support system developed by the government. However, the problem is that infrastructural facilities have not been spread across uniformly in India. The psychological problem and human resource problem has to be tackled effectively so as to promote entrepreneurship.
The psychological problem and human resource problem are related to entrepreneurial propensity and entrepreneurial potential.  To tackle the psychological problem, the first step to be taken is to create awareness about entrepreneurship.

The awareness should be such that it should dispel the myths and misconceptions about entrepreneurship, which obviously leads to a higher propensity in individuals to start and operate their own businesses. This in turn would make educated youth of the country to become job providers rather than job seekers. The human resources problem can be effectively tackled by strengthening the education and training programs in entrepreneurship.  An action oriented education with a focus on developing a curriculum that helps students to develop entrepreneurial propensity and entrepreneurial potential will solve the human resources problem pertaining to entrepreneurship. The growth of entrepreneurship in India depends to a large extent on its ability to surmount its the four categories of problems namely psychological, human resources, infrastructural and monetary.

Dr. C.Venkata Ramana,
Associate Professor,
School of Business,
AURO University

IT – Rainbow of Technical Life

IT – Rainbow of Technical Life

1With the advancement of human race, has led to many revolutions and discoveries among which technical revolution has changed the way of life and took world and human races to a different dimension. With emergence of technical revolution in the 20th century, have led a new way of thinking and doing tremendous amount of tedious work within fraction of time, doing smart work in just one click. Let it be whether typing a text to weather forecasting, reading news to publishing an article. You name any field and IT is there. Today it has become a basic need and necessity. Here today we are to talk on “Recent Trends in IT” or emerging trends in IT. Every morning you wake up, what do you need- A cup of Tea, Coffee, Warm water and the answer is a Big NO. We want to check our mobile phones first and Boom more of it we want to check missed messages on WhatsApp or Facebook for upcoming birthdays, messages from the known, tweet by our Honorable Prime Minister, Actresses, international trending people and many more. Actors, actresses, our grandparents, milk man, newspaper wala, politicians, everyone is on internet for socializing over the Internet. It has become a need symbol to carry a smart phone rather “iPhone” and spend hours with it. 2

All these renovations and innovations have come from Mobile Computing as we have shifted from carrying big laptops to carry a small smart box with us for not only socializing but also for medical, studies, reading etc. this has also led to development of many mobile applications and services and it has opened wide path for employment options too. Everything on the internet is available in just one click whether its laptop or desktop and that the product of web designing which have made our life so easy for searching and entertaining that we need nothing if we have an Internet Connection. When we the technology is so easily available and advancing why not to make our living smart by upgrading to Smart City and IoT. Trust me its fun switching on your gadgets at home even when you are far away. And then comes in security with IoT, Internet, Cloud Computing and all aspects of using machine and communicating over them.

3We need to protect our data and contents from people spying into our system and peeping into my personal life. The only way to secure it is apply data security, cyber security and also hacking can be Hi-Jacking and Hi-Joking. Also today we are happy and enjoy to see what you searched on commercial site getting displayed everywhere. Isn’t it a fun? Yes it is and sometimes No also as it collects our data using Data Mining which can be used wisely and cunningly but can be threatening too. Again security protects us from bad things being done to us. Technology has brought in many impact good as well as bad but its effect can be managed by us. Its in our hand to control technology or technology controls us. With this concept comes Artificial Intelligence where now we were controlling the machines to help in every phase of life as assistants, Expert Systems, Prediction Machines, money dispenser machines and many more uses.Now comes the era of building smart cars, smart houses to the smart cities as everything is turning smart.4

Between this entire scenario how can we forget the data that have actually revolutionized the computer systems to upgrade them with very high storage capacity, building Data Centers everywhere and costing and paying so much for customer’s profile, users profile and what not. For this, the need definitely is Database System that keeps and stores our data for a very longer of time, in proper format and makes it available whenever needed. We have been storing so much data everywhere and all types of it. Now what to do them? The answer is start utilizing them to study the trends, finding the highest hits, most sold product and on and on. Let’s analyze them statistically to improve the market of everything being sold on the earth. In all this discussion we have forgotten an important factor how do we do all this task from DBMS to AI? 5We do make everything available using programming the computer and application using high level languages sometimes even low level languages are needed to build something from the scratch. How about building a gaming app? A fitness app? A friendship app? And the list never ends. For this we have python, Android, Java, .Net, J2EE, JavaScript, HTML and the never ending list. The options are available like a platter of yummy food to choose from all you need to know is your choice and your craving for variety of items.

Anshu Agarwal,
Assistant Professor,
School of I.T.